Yes and no, actually.
First, sudo isn't installed by default, that means that graphical apps like gparted that must be run with administrative powers will ask you the root password instead of the user one.
And in console, if you want to run apps that require admin powers like apt, you'll have to switch to root with the command "su", and then do what you want (without the sudo).
But you can install sudo if you want (you'll have to configure the sudoers file), but graphical apps will still ask for the root password (they use gksu instead of gksudo, I don't know how to automatically change that everywhere in the menus).
Second, debian wants to be as free as possible, so some programs like firefox, thunderbird, chrome, who have some non free parts (logos and names, for example) are replaced by free ones iceweasel, icedove (those are firefox and thunderbird but with free logos and names), chromium-browser (the open source browser that google use to make chrome).
For the package list, here: http://www.debian.org/distrib/packages